Outdoor smoking bans in NSW

Amendments to the Smoke-free Environment Act 2000 (NSW) will come into force next week, further restricting tobacco smoking in public areas in New South Wales.

Smoking is already banned in enclosed public areas in NSW.

From 7 January 2013, smoking will also be banned in the following outdoor places:

  • within 10 metres of children’s play equipment in outdoor public places
  • public swimming pools
  • spectator areas of sports venues
  • public transport stops/platforms (including bus stops and taxi ranks)
  • within 4 metres of entrances to public buildings

Furthermore, from 6 July 2015 smoking will also be banned in commercial outdoor dining areas (i.e. al fresco).

Australia is a world leader in tobacco harm reduction. It’s good to see further action being taken to protect public health through reducing exposure to second-hand smoke.

More information: health.nsw.gov.au/tobacco/Pages/smokefree-areas-faq.aspx

My colonial medical elective

Now that I’ve finally completed the Sydney Medical Program, it’s about time that I finally post some long-overdue reflections on my elective terms in London and Hong Kong at the start of the year.

The Royal London Hospital (Barts and The London, QMUL)

The Royal London Hospital

My first elective term was spent at The Royal London Hospital under Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (Queen Mary, University of London). The Royal London Hospital is a 650-bed tertiary hospital and the principal facility of the Barts and The London NHS Trust. It is particularly known as one of London’s major (level one) trauma centres and the home of the London Air Ambulance (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service), however a full range of medical and surgical specialties are represented.

Drs Po and Preston

I was assigned to the gastroenterology team under consultant gastroenterologist Dr Sean Preston. He was an excellent supervisor and I was lucky to have spent quite a lot of time under his guidance during my elective. Dr Roocroft (the F1 house officer) was also a great mentor, teaching me the ins and outs of being a house officer in the NHS.

Work casual

Work attire in NHS hospitals is very appropriately guided by infection control considerations. In summary:

  • no tie
  • sleeves rolled-up to elbows
  • no watch (most male doctors wear their watch on their belt)

The Royal London Hospital

The logic (and comfort) of this policy was such that I continued with this after returning to Sydney, where it was still convention for male doctors to wear ties.

Speaking English

There were a few differences in the medical vocabulary used in the UK, which took a little while for me to get used to. The most prominent ones during my elective were:

bleeper – pager
phlebotomy – venepuncture
OGD (oesophageogastroduodenoscopy) – endoscopy
TTA (to take away) – discharge summary

EastEnders

I alluded in a previous post that I lived in hospital accommodation. Indeed I found myself living in John Harrison House, The Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel E1 2DR for the duration of my stay in London. Whilst relatively cheap (approx. £100/week), it was rather spartan. One of the other JHH residents described living there as punishment for his sins, whilst more colourful language was employed by one of the senior registrars.

One of the unexpected consequences of living in Whitechapel, with its majority non-white population, was the difficulty I had in trying to find a decent full English breakfast. Despite there being half a dozen (halal) fried chicken shops on Whitechapel Rd alone, there were very few decent cafés in the area. Spotting a modern-looking café on New Rd advertising that they served “English breakfast”, I stepped into Zaza’s Café (E1 1HJ)… only to realise that they served a halal version of English breakfast: smoked turkey, beef sausage, egg, baked beans, mushroom & toast. It wasn’t bad, but it’s just not the same! Thereafter I quickly learnt the Arabic characters for halal (حلا).

Queen Mary Hospital (HKU)

My second elective term was spent at Queen Mary Hospital under the Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong. Queen Mary Hospital (est. 1937) is a 1400-bed tertiary hospital and the principal facility of the Hong Kong West Cluster, with a catchment area population of over 500,000 people.

Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong

I was attached to a final-year group undertaking their Specialty Clerkship rotation. This works rather differently from the way our attachments work during clinical years – instead of being attached to a specific medical/surgical specialty team for the duration of a clinical attachment, each group of HKU students is allocated to one general medical ward where they’re expected to clerk patients (with seemingly little direct role in patient care). They take part in case discussions, PBL tutorials, and clinics with consultants from different specialties over the course of the term. Often ward-based tutorials were quite crowded, particularly with the confined spaces inside most hospital wards in Hong Kong (see pic below – I wasn’t standing at the back).

Ward tutorial, QMH

Masquerade

I was in Hong Kong during the 2009 influenza H1N1 “swine flu” pandemic. Following their experience during the SARS epidemic, all Hong Kong hospitals had activated what they termed “pandemic emergency response level E2”. One of the E2 requirements was that a surgical face mask was required in all clinical areas – effectively meaning that staff/students had to wear surgical masks all day!

Emergency E2 clinical attire

White coat syndrome

In total contrast to NHS policy, Hong Kong clinical attire convention was still very conservative and included the wearing of a “clean, white laboratory coat”. I’d never previously worn a lab coat in the clinical setting, but noticed two advantages: (i) it was handy having large pockets in which to put my stuff (e.g. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine), and (ii) I got my student/staff discount at the hospital cafeteria and Starbucks without having to show any ID. Nevertheless, once I returned to Sydney I greatly appreciated not having to wear a lab coat.

HKU Specialty Clerkship group a/b, 2010 rotation 1

Finally, I’d like to take this opportunity to acknowledge and thank the Specialty Clerkship group to which I was attached – Fifian, Jimi, James, Vincent, Rosemary, Edgar and Sha Sha – for helping me to fit-in and manage the language barrier.

Peer-reviewed and published!

Over a four-month period in summer 2007/08, I was involved in public health research at the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS) on a Faculty of Medicine Summer Research Scholarship. The results from that work have now been published in the journal BMC Health Services Research, which means that I now have my first peer-reviewed journal article to my name. The full text of our article (open access) is available from BioMed Central.

Seale, et al. BMC Health Serv Res 2009.

Abstract

Background: There is a general consensus that another influenza pandemic is inevitable. Although health care workers (HCWs) are essential to the health system response, there are few studies exploring HCW attitudes to pandemic influenza. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviour towards pandemic influenza.

Methods: Cross-sectional investigation of a convenience sample of clinical and non-clinical HCWs from two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia was conducted between June 4 and October 19, 2007. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to hospital personal from 40 different wards and departments. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation.

Results: Respondents were categorized into four main groups by occupation: Nursing (47.5%), Medical (26.0%), Allied (15.3%) and Ancillary (11.2%). Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious (80.9%, n = 873) but less than half were able to correctly define it (43.9%, n = 473). Only 24.8% of respondents believed their department to be prepared for a pandemic, but nonetheless most were willing to work during a pandemic if a patient or colleague had influenza. The main determinants of variation in our study were occupational factors, demographics and health beliefs. Non-clinical staff were significantly most likely to be unsure of their intentions (OR 1.43, p < 0.001). Only 42.5% (n = 459) of respondents considered that neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications (oseltamivir/zanamivir) would protect them against pandemic influenza, whereas 77.5% (n = 836) believed that vaccination would be of benefit.

Conclusion: We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans – the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective measure; secondly, that non-clinical workers are an overlooked group whose lack of knowledge and awareness could undermine pandemic plans. Other issues included a high level of confidence in dietary measures to protect against influenza, and a belief among ancillary workers that antibiotics would be protective. All health care worker strategies should include non clinical and ancillary staff to ensure adequate business continuity for hospitals. HCW education, psychosocial support and staff communication could improve knowledge of appropriate pandemic interventions and confidence in antivirals.

Citation/identifiers

Seale H, Leask J, Po K, MacIntyre CR. “Will they just pack up and leave?” – attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:30.

doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-30
PMID: 19216792 (PubMed)